Added SignatureDetector which can detect signatures spanning multiple TCP connections
authorJanus Varmarken <varmarken@gmail.com>
Tue, 2 Oct 2018 23:32:27 +0000 (16:32 -0700)
committerJanus Varmarken <varmarken@gmail.com>
Tue, 2 Oct 2018 23:32:27 +0000 (16:32 -0700)
Code/Projects/SmartPlugDetector/.idea/modules/SmartPlugDetector_main.iml
Code/Projects/SmartPlugDetector/.idea/modules/SmartPlugDetector_test.iml
Code/Projects/SmartPlugDetector/build.gradle
Code/Projects/SmartPlugDetector/src/main/java/edu/uci/iotproject/detection/SignatureDetector.java [new file with mode: 0644]

index 740525e..9353a45 100644 (file)
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.pcap4j:pcap4j-core:2.0.0-alpha" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.slf4j:slf4j-jdk14:1.8.0-beta2" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.apache.commons:commons-math3:3.6.1" level="project" />
+    <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.jgrapht:jgrapht-core:1.2.0" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.slf4j:slf4j-api:1.8.0-beta2" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: net.java.dev.jna:jna:4.2.1" level="project" />
   </component>
index 8d4ae84..d10f1b0 100644 (file)
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.pcap4j:pcap4j-core:2.0.0-alpha" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.slf4j:slf4j-jdk14:1.8.0-beta2" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.apache.commons:commons-math3:3.6.1" level="project" />
+    <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.jgrapht:jgrapht-core:1.2.0" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: junit:junit:4.11" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: org.slf4j:slf4j-api:1.8.0-beta2" level="project" />
     <orderEntry type="library" name="Gradle: net.java.dev.jna:jna:4.2.1" level="project" />
index bb07bce..f8f539c 100644 (file)
@@ -26,4 +26,7 @@ dependencies {
 
     // Apache Commons Math for clustering
     compile 'org.apache.commons:commons-math3:3.6.1'
+
+    // JGraphT: Java Graph library
+    compile 'org.jgrapht:jgrapht-core:1.2.0'
 }
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/Code/Projects/SmartPlugDetector/src/main/java/edu/uci/iotproject/detection/SignatureDetector.java b/Code/Projects/SmartPlugDetector/src/main/java/edu/uci/iotproject/detection/SignatureDetector.java
new file mode 100644 (file)
index 0000000..d14270b
--- /dev/null
@@ -0,0 +1,429 @@
+package edu.uci.iotproject.detection;
+
+import edu.uci.iotproject.analysis.TriggerTrafficExtractor;
+import edu.uci.iotproject.analysis.UserAction;
+import edu.uci.iotproject.io.PcapHandleReader;
+import edu.uci.iotproject.util.PrintUtils;
+import org.jgrapht.GraphPath;
+import org.jgrapht.alg.shortestpath.DijkstraShortestPath;
+import org.jgrapht.graph.DefaultWeightedEdge;
+import org.jgrapht.graph.SimpleDirectedWeightedGraph;
+import org.pcap4j.core.*;
+
+import java.time.Duration;
+import java.time.ZoneId;
+import java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter;
+import java.time.format.FormatStyle;
+import java.util.*;
+import java.util.function.Consumer;
+
+/**
+ * Detects an event signature that spans one or multiple TCP connections.
+ *
+ * @author Janus Varmarken {@literal <jvarmark@uci.edu>}
+ * @author Rahmadi Trimananda {@literal <rtrimana@uci.edu>}
+ */
+public class SignatureDetector implements PacketListener, ClusterMatcher.ClusterMatchObserver {
+
+    // Test client
+    public static void main(String[] args) throws PcapNativeException, NotOpenException {
+        //        String path = "/scratch/July-2018"; // Rahmadi
+        String path = "/Users/varmarken/temp/UCI IoT Project/experiments"; // Janus
+        final String inputPcapFile = path + "/2018-08/kwikset-doorlock/kwikset3.wlan1.local.pcap";
+        final String onSignatureFile = path + "/2018-08/kwikset-doorlock/onSignature-Kwikset-Doorlock-phone.sig";
+        final String offSignatureFile = path + "/2018-08/kwikset-doorlock/offSignature-Kwikset-Doorlock-phone.sig";
+
+        List<List<List<PcapPacket>>> onSignature = PrintUtils.deserializeSignatureFromFile(onSignatureFile);
+        List<List<List<PcapPacket>>> offSignature = PrintUtils.deserializeSignatureFromFile(offSignatureFile);
+
+        SignatureDetector onDetector = new SignatureDetector(onSignature, null);
+        SignatureDetector offDetector = new SignatureDetector(offSignature, null);
+
+        final DateTimeFormatter dateTimeFormatter = DateTimeFormatter.ofLocalizedDateTime(FormatStyle.MEDIUM).
+                withLocale(Locale.US).withZone(ZoneId.of("America/Los_Angeles"));
+
+        // Outputs information about a detected event to std.out
+        final Consumer<UserAction> outputter = ua -> {
+            String eventDescription;
+            switch (ua.getType()) {
+                case TOGGLE_ON:
+                    eventDescription = "ON";
+                    break;
+                case TOGGLE_OFF:
+                    eventDescription = "OFF";
+                    break;
+                default:
+                    throw new AssertionError("unhandled event type");
+            }
+            String output = String.format("[ !!! %s SIGNATURE DETECTED at %s !!! ]",
+                    eventDescription, dateTimeFormatter.format(ua.getTimestamp()));
+            System.out.println(output);
+        };
+
+        // Let's create observers that construct a UserAction representing the detected event.
+        final List<UserAction> detectedEvents = new ArrayList<>();
+        onDetector.addObserver((searched, match) -> {
+            PcapPacket firstPkt = match.get(0).get(0);
+            detectedEvents.add(new UserAction(UserAction.Type.TOGGLE_ON, firstPkt.getTimestamp()));
+        });
+        offDetector.addObserver((searched, match) -> {
+            PcapPacket firstPkt = match.get(0).get(0);
+            detectedEvents.add(new UserAction(UserAction.Type.TOGGLE_OFF, firstPkt.getTimestamp()));
+        });
+
+        PcapHandle handle;
+        try {
+            handle = Pcaps.openOffline(inputPcapFile, PcapHandle.TimestampPrecision.NANO);
+        } catch (PcapNativeException pne) {
+            handle = Pcaps.openOffline(inputPcapFile);
+        }
+        PcapHandleReader reader = new PcapHandleReader(handle, p -> true, onDetector, offDetector);
+        reader.readFromHandle();
+
+        // TODO: need a better way of triggering detection than this...
+        onDetector.mClusterMatchers.forEach(cm -> cm.performDetection());
+        offDetector.mClusterMatchers.forEach(cm -> cm.performDetection());
+
+        // Sort the list of detected events by timestamp to make it easier to compare it line-by-line with the trigger
+        // times file.
+        Collections.sort(detectedEvents, Comparator.comparing(UserAction::getTimestamp));
+        // Output the detected events
+        detectedEvents.forEach(outputter);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * The signature that this {@link SignatureDetector} is searching for.
+     */
+    private final List<List<List<PcapPacket>>> mSignature;
+
+    /**
+     * The {@link ClusterMatcher}s in charge of detecting each individual sequence of packets that together make up the
+     * the signature.
+     */
+    private final List<ClusterMatcher> mClusterMatchers;
+
+    /**
+     * For each {@code i} ({@code i >= 0 && i < pendingMatches.length}), {@code pendingMatches[i]} holds the matches
+     * found by the {@link ClusterMatcher} at {@code mClusterMatchers.get(i)} that have yet to be "consumed", i.e.,
+     * have yet to be included in a signature detected by this {@link SignatureDetector} (a signature can be encompassed
+     * of multiple packet sequences occurring shortly after one another on multiple connections).
+     */
+    private final List<List<PcapPacket>>[] pendingMatches;
+
+    /**
+     * Maps a {@link ClusterMatcher} to its corresponding index in {@link #pendingMatches}.
+     */
+    private final Map<ClusterMatcher, Integer> mClusterMatcherIds;
+
+    private final List<SignatureDetectionObserver> mObservers = new ArrayList<>();
+
+    public SignatureDetector(List<List<List<PcapPacket>>> searchedSignature, String routerWanIp) {
+        // note: doesn't protect inner lists from changes :'(
+        mSignature = Collections.unmodifiableList(searchedSignature);
+        // Generate corresponding/appropriate ClusterMatchers based on the provided signature
+        List<ClusterMatcher> clusterMatchers = new ArrayList<>();
+        for (List<List<PcapPacket>> cluster : mSignature) {
+            clusterMatchers.add(new ClusterMatcher(cluster, routerWanIp, this));
+        }
+        mClusterMatchers = Collections.unmodifiableList(clusterMatchers);
+
+        // < exploratory >
+        pendingMatches = new List[mClusterMatchers.size()];
+        for (int i = 0; i < pendingMatches.length; i++) {
+            pendingMatches[i] = new ArrayList<>();
+        }
+        Map<ClusterMatcher, Integer> clusterMatcherIds = new HashMap<>();
+        for (int i = 0; i < mClusterMatchers.size(); i++) {
+            clusterMatcherIds.put(mClusterMatchers.get(i), i);
+        }
+        mClusterMatcherIds = Collections.unmodifiableMap(clusterMatcherIds);
+    }
+
+    public void addObserver(SignatureDetectionObserver observer) {
+        mObservers.add(observer);
+    }
+
+    public boolean removeObserver(SignatureDetectionObserver observer) {
+        return mObservers.remove(observer);
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void gotPacket(PcapPacket packet) {
+        // simply delegate packet reception to all ClusterMatchers.
+        mClusterMatchers.forEach(cm -> cm.gotPacket(packet));
+    }
+
+    @Override
+    public void onMatch(ClusterMatcher clusterMatcher, List<PcapPacket> match) {
+        // Add the match at the corresponding index
+        pendingMatches[mClusterMatcherIds.get(clusterMatcher)].add(match);
+        checkSignatureMatch3();
+
+
+        // INITIAL
+//        // No need to check for signature presence until all ClusterMatchers have found a match.
+//        if (Arrays.stream(pendingMatches).noneMatch(l -> l.isEmpty())) {
+//            // There's potentially a signature match...
+//            // TODO need to check if all matches are within X seconds of one another
+//
+//            List<List<PcapPacket>> signatureMatch = new ArrayList<>();
+//            for (int i = 0; i < pendingMatches.length; i++) {
+//                if (signatureMatch.size() != i) {
+//                    // Didn't manage to add sequence at previous index to signature match, so not a signature match.
+//                    // TODO: clear array?
+//                    return;
+//                }
+//                if (i == 0) {
+//                    // Special case with no preceding sequence as this is the first sequence of the signature.
+//                    // TODO...
+//                    signatureMatch.add(pendingMatches[i].get(0)); // TODO: pick earliest or latest match?
+//                } else {
+//                    // Fetch the sequence in the signature that precedes this sequence
+//                    List<PcapPacket> prev = signatureMatch.get(i-1);
+//                    // And get a hold of it's latest packet; note that a match should never be empty so .get() is safe.
+//                    PcapPacket prevLatestPkt = prev.stream().max(Comparator.comparing(PcapPacket::getTimestamp)).get();
+//                    /*
+//                     * Do any of the matches of the sequence at the current index of the signature lie later in time
+//                     * than the match of the sequence that precedes it? If so, we are good and can proceed, otherwise we
+//                     * do not have a signature match.
+//                     */
+//                    Optional<List<PcapPacket>> curr = pendingMatches[i].stream().filter(pkts -> pkts.stream().allMatch(
+//                            pkt -> pkt.getTimestamp().isAfter(prevLatestPkt.getTimestamp()))).findFirst();
+//                    if (curr.isPresent()) {
+//                        // So far so good, keep going.
+//                        signatureMatch.add(curr.get());
+//                    } else {
+//                        // Bummer, not a signature match.
+//                        // TODO: clear array?
+//                        return;
+//                    }
+//                }
+//            }
+//            // If we make it out of the loop, it means that we have managed to construct a match of the signature.
+//            // Notify observers of the match.
+//            // TODO: clear array? At the very least we need to remove those entries that we used for this match so they are not reused later.
+//            mObservers.forEach(obs -> obs.onSignatureDetected(mSignature, signatureMatch));
+//        }
+
+    }
+
+    private void checkSignatureMatch3() {
+        // << Graph-based approach using Balint's idea. >>
+        // This implementation assumes that the packets in the inner lists (the sequences) are ordered by asc timestamp.
+
+        // There cannot be a signature match until each ClusterMatcher has found a match of its respective sequence.
+        if (Arrays.stream(pendingMatches).noneMatch(l -> l.isEmpty())) {
+            // Construct the DAG
+            final SimpleDirectedWeightedGraph<Vertex, DefaultWeightedEdge> graph =
+                    new SimpleDirectedWeightedGraph<>(DefaultWeightedEdge.class);
+            // Add a vertex for each match found by all ClusterMatchers
+            // And maintain an array to keep track of what cluster matcher each vertex corresponds to
+            final List<Vertex>[] vertices = new List[pendingMatches.length];
+            for (int i = 0; i < pendingMatches.length; i++) {
+                vertices[i] = new ArrayList<>();
+                for (List<PcapPacket> sequence : pendingMatches[i]) {
+                    Vertex v = new Vertex(sequence);
+                    vertices[i].add(v); // retain reference for later when we are to add edges
+                    graph.addVertex(v); // add to vertex to graph
+                }
+            }
+            // Add dummy source and sink vertices to facilitate search.
+            final Vertex source = new Vertex(null);
+            final Vertex sink = new Vertex(null);
+            graph.addVertex(source);
+            graph.addVertex(sink);
+            // The source is connected to all vertices that wrap the sequences detected by ClusterMatcher at index 0.
+            // Note: zero cost edges as this is just a dummy link to facilitate search from a common start node.
+            for (Vertex v : vertices[0]) {
+                DefaultWeightedEdge edge = graph.addEdge(source, v);
+                graph.setEdgeWeight(edge, 0.0);
+            }
+            // Similarly, all vertices that wrap the sequences detected by the last ClusterMatcher of the signature
+            // are connected to the sink node.
+            for (Vertex v : vertices[vertices.length-1]) {
+                DefaultWeightedEdge edge = graph.addEdge(v, sink);
+                graph.setEdgeWeight(edge, 0.0);
+            }
+            // Now link sequences detected by ClusterMatcher at index i to sequences detected by ClusterMatcher at index
+            // i+1 if they obey the timestamp constraint (i.e., that the latter is later in time than the former).
+            for (int i = 0; i < vertices.length; i++) {
+                int j = i + 1;
+                if (j < vertices.length) {
+                    for (Vertex iv : vertices[i]) {
+                        PcapPacket ivLast = iv.sequence.get(iv.sequence.size()-1);
+                        for (Vertex jv : vertices[j]) {
+                            PcapPacket jvFirst = jv.sequence.get(jv.sequence.size()-1);
+                            if (ivLast.getTimestamp().isBefore(jvFirst.getTimestamp())) {
+                                DefaultWeightedEdge edge = graph.addEdge(iv, jv);
+                                // The weight is the duration of the i'th sequence plus the duration between the i'th
+                                // and i+1'th sequence.
+                                Duration d = Duration.
+                                        between(iv.sequence.get(0).getTimestamp(), jvFirst.getTimestamp());
+                                // Unfortunately weights are double values, so must convert from long to double.
+                                // TODO: need nano second precision? If so, use d.toNanos().
+                                // TODO: risk of overflow when converting from long to double..?
+                                graph.setEdgeWeight(edge, Long.valueOf(d.toMillis()).doubleValue());
+                            }
+                            // Alternative version if we cannot assume that sequences are ordered by timestamp:
+//                            if (iv.sequence.stream().max(Comparator.comparing(PcapPacket::getTimestamp)).get()
+//                                    .getTimestamp().isBefore(jv.sequence.stream().min(
+//                                            Comparator.comparing(PcapPacket::getTimestamp)).get().getTimestamp())) {
+//
+//                            }
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+            // Graph construction complete, run shortest-path to find a (potential) signature match.
+            DijkstraShortestPath<Vertex, DefaultWeightedEdge> dijkstra = new DijkstraShortestPath<>(graph);
+            GraphPath<Vertex, DefaultWeightedEdge> shortestPath = dijkstra.getPath(source, sink);
+            if (shortestPath != null) {
+                // The total weight is the duration between the first packet of the first sequence and the last packet
+                // of the last sequence, so we simply have to compare the weight against the timeframe that we allow
+                // the signature to span. For now we just use the inclusion window we defined for training purposes.
+                // Note however, that we must convert back from double to long as the weight is stored as a double in
+                // JGraphT's API.
+                if (((long)shortestPath.getWeight()) < TriggerTrafficExtractor.INCLUSION_WINDOW_MILLIS) {
+                    // There's a signature match!
+                    // Extract the match from the vertices
+                    List<List<PcapPacket>> signatureMatch = new ArrayList<>();
+                    for(Vertex v : shortestPath.getVertexList()) {
+                        if (v == source || v == sink) {
+                            // Skip the dummy source and sink nodes.
+                            continue;
+                        }
+                        signatureMatch.add(v.sequence);
+                        // As there is a one-to-one correspondence between vertices[] and pendingMatches[], we know that
+                        // the sequence we've "consumed" for index i of the matched signature is also at index i in
+                        // pendingMatches. We must remove it from pendingMatches so that we don't use it to construct
+                        // another signature match in a later call.
+                        pendingMatches[signatureMatch.size()-1].remove(v.sequence);
+                    }
+                    // Declare success: notify observers
+                    mObservers.forEach(obs -> obs.onSignatureDetected(mSignature,
+                            Collections.unmodifiableList(signatureMatch)));
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    private void checkSignatureMatch2() {
+        /*
+         * In this implementation, we assume that the packets in the inner lists (the sequences) are ordered by
+         * timestamp (ascending) AND that the outer list is ordered by timestamp of the most recent packet of each inner
+         * list (i.e., the last packet of the inner list).
+         */
+        if (Arrays.stream(pendingMatches).noneMatch(l -> l.isEmpty())) {
+            /*
+             * The signature match consisting of one (or a set of) sequence(s) observed on (potentially multiple)
+             * separate TCP connections. The signature match is reconstructed from the matches found by the individual
+             * ClusterMatchers that each look for a separate sequence of packets occurring on one TCP connection.
+             * Invariant used below: if all entries are non-null, we have a match; initially all entries are null.
+             */
+            List<PcapPacket>[] signatureMatch = new List[pendingMatches.length];
+            // List<List<PcapPacket>> signatureMatch = new ArrayList<>();
+            /*
+             * For the first sequence of the signature, we give preference to the later samples as that strategy makes
+             * it more likely that the full set of sequences that make up the signature fit in the time window that
+             * dictates the maximum time between the sequences of the signature.
+             */
+            for (int i = pendingMatches[0].size()-1; i >= 0; i--) {
+                signatureMatch[0] = pendingMatches[0].get(i);
+                // Having selected the most recent sequence
+                for (int j = 1; j < pendingMatches.length; j++) {
+                    List<List<PcapPacket>> entry = pendingMatches[j];
+
+                }
+
+            }
+
+
+            /*
+            // First sort by duration
+            Stream<List<PcapPacket>> sortedByDuration = pendingMatches[0].stream().sorted((l1, l2) -> {
+                Instant l1Max = l1.get(l1.size()-1).getTimestamp();
+                Instant l1Min = l1.get(0).getTimestamp();
+                Instant l2Max = l2.get(l2.size()-1).getTimestamp();
+                Instant l2Min = l2.get(0).getTimestamp();
+                Duration l1Duration = Duration.between(l1Min, l1Max);
+                Duration l2Duration = Duration.between(l2Min, l2Max);
+
+                return l1Duration.compareTo(l2Duration);
+            });
+            for (int i = 1; i < pendingMatches.length; i++) {
+                pendingMatches[i].stream()
+            }
+            */
+        }
+
+    }
+
+    /*
+    private void checkSignatureMatch() {
+        // There cannot be a signature match until each ClusterMatcher has found a match of its respective sequence.
+        if (Arrays.stream(pendingMatches).noneMatch(l -> l.isEmpty())) {
+            List<List<PcapPacket>> sigMatch = new ArrayList<>();
+            for (int i = 0; i < pendingMatches.length; i++) {
+                if (i + 1 < pendingMatches.length) {
+                    // We want to select the current element that is the latest, yet lies before the next element.
+                    // Start by fetching the matches at the next index.
+                    List<List<PcapPacket>> nextIdxMatches = pendingMatches[i+1];
+                    // Create a stream that contains the minimum packet timestamp of each inner list of nextIdMatches
+                    Stream<PcapPacket> nextMinTimestamps = nextIdxMatches.stream().
+                            map(l -> l.stream().min(Comparator.comparing(PcapPacket::getTimestamp)).get());
+                    // Create a stream that contains the maximum packet timestamps of each inner list of current index
+                    Stream<PcapPacket> currMaxTimestamps = pendingMatches[i].stream().
+                            map(ps -> ps.stream().max(Comparator.comparing(PcapPacket::getTimestamp)).get());
+                    currMaxTimestamps.filter(p1 -> nextMinTimestamps.anyMatch(p2 -> p2.getTimestamp().isAfter(p1.getTimestamp())));
+
+
+
+                    //pendingMatches[i].stream().filter(ps -> ps.stream().map(p1 -> ))
+
+
+
+
+                    pendingMatches[i].stream().filter(ps -> ps.stream().allMatch(p -> p.getTimestamp().isBefore(
+                    )))
+
+
+                    pendingMatches[i].stream().filter(ps -> ps.stream().allMatch(p -> p.getTimestamp().isBefore(
+
+                    )))
+
+                    Stream<PcapPacket> currMaxTimestamps = pendingMatches[i].stream().
+                            map(ps -> ps.stream().max(Comparator.comparing(PcapPacket::getTimestamp)));
+
+
+//                    pendingMatches[i].stream().filter(ps -> ps.stream().allMatch(p -> p.getTimestamp().isBefore(
+//                            // which match (item) in 'next' do we consider?
+//                            next.stream().
+//                    )))
+                }
+
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    */
+    interface SignatureDetectionObserver {
+        // TODO: add argument that points to the packets matching the signature
+        void onSignatureDetected(List<List<List<PcapPacket>>> searchedSignature,
+                                 List<List<PcapPacket>> matchingTraffic);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Encapsulates a {@code List<PcapPacket>} so as to allow the list to be used as a vertex in a graph while avoiding
+     * the expensive {@link AbstractList#equals(Object)} calls when adding vertices to the graph.
+     * Using this wrapper makes the incurred {@code equals(Object)} calls delegate to {@link Object#equals(Object)}
+     * instead of {@link AbstractList#equals(Object)}. The net effect is a faster implementation, but the graph will not
+     * recognize two lists that contain the same items--from a value and not reference point of view--as the same
+     * vertex. However, this is fine for our purposes -- in fact restricting it to reference equality seems more
+     * appropriate.
+     */
+    private static class Vertex {
+        private final List<PcapPacket> sequence;
+        private Vertex(List<PcapPacket> wrappedSequence) {
+            sequence = wrappedSequence;
+        }
+    }
+}